Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of presentation
These financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”) and include all of the assets, liabilities and expenses of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries Ur-Energy USA Inc.; NFU Wyoming, LLC; Lost Creek ISR, LLC; NFUR Bootheel, LLC; Hauber Project LLC; NFUR Hauber, LLC; and (as of December 20, 2013) Pathfinder Mines Corporation.  All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.  Ur-Energy Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries are collectively referred to herein as the “Company.”
Functional currency and presentation currency 
The Company changed its functional currency prospectively, beginning January 1, 2013, from the Canadian dollar to the U.S. dollar with respect to its operations in the United States. The change in functional currency had a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements as most of the non-current assets of the Company are situated in the United States and were previously accounted for using the Canadian dollar as the functional currency. As of January 1, 2013, the Company recorded a cumulative transaction adjustment (“CTA”) of approximately $6.2 million for this change, which is shown in the consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity.
The functional currency for Canadian operations will remain the Canadian dollar.  They will be consolidated with the U.S. cost basis balances using the spot rate for assets and liabilities, the historical cost rates for shareholders’ equity transactions and the average rate for all operating revenues and expenses. 
Additional translation adjustments will result from the change in consolidation methods as prescribed by US GAAP where there are multiple functional currencies reflected in consolidated financial statements.  These adjustments will not be included in determining net income, but will be reported separately and accumulated in other comprehensive income.
In addition as a result of losing its foreign private issuer status, the Company changed its presentational currency from the Canadian dollar to U.S. dollars. As a result, comparative information has been changed. The effects of doing so are not significant because the Canadian and U.S. dollars were close to par at December 31, 2012.
Exploration Stage
The Company has established the existence of mineralized materials for certain uranium projects, including the Lost Creek property The Company has not established proven or probable reserves, as defined by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under Industry Guide 7, through the completion of a “final” or “bankable” feasibility study for any of its uranium projects, including Lost Creek property. Furthermore, the Company has no plans to establish proven or probable reserves for any of its uranium projects for which the Company plans on utilizing in-situ recovery (“ISR”) mining, such as the Lost Creek property or the Shirley Basin mine. As a result, and despite the fact that the Company commenced extraction of U3O8 at the Lost Creek property in September 2013, the Company remains in the Exploration Stage as defined under Industry Guide 7, and will continue to remain in the Exploration Stage until such time proven or probable reserves have been established.
Since the Company commenced extraction of mineralized materials at the Lost Creek property without having established proven and probable reserves, any mineralized materials established or extracted from the Lost Creek property should not be in any way associated with having established or produced from proven or probable reserves.
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, expenditures relating to the acquisition of mineral rights are initially capitalized as incurred while exploration and pre-extraction expenditures are expensed as incurred until such time the Company exits the Exploration Stage by establishing proven or probable reserves. Expenditures relating to exploration activities such as drill programs to search for additional mineralized materials are expensed as incurred. Expenditures relating to activities such as the construction of mine wellfields, header houses and disposal wells are expensed as incurred until such time proven or probable reserves are established for that uranium project, after which subsequent expenditures relating to mine development activities for that particular project are capitalized as incurred
Companies in the Production Stage as defined under Industry Guide 7, having established proven and probable reserves and exited the Exploration Stage, typically capitalize expenditures relating to ongoing development activities, with corresponding depletion calculated over proven and probable reserves using the units-of-production method and allocated to future reporting periods to inventory and, as that inventory is sold, to cost of goods sold. The Company is in the Exploration Stage which has resulted in the Company reporting larger losses than if it had been in the Production Stage due to the expensing, instead of capitalizing, of expenditures relating to ongoing wellfield development activities. Additionally, there would be no corresponding amortization allocated to future reporting periods of the Company since those costs would have been expensed previously, resulting in both lower inventory costs and cost of goods sold and results of operations with higher gross profits and lower losses than if the Company had been in the Production Stage. Any capitalized costs, such as expenditures relating to the acquisition of mineral rights and asset retirement obligations, are amortized over the estimated mineral life using the straight-line method. As a result, the Company’s consolidated financial statements may not be directly comparable to the financial statements of companies in the Production Stage.
Development Stage Entity
Prior to the quarter ended December 31, 2013 (fiscal year ending December 31, 2013), the Company met the definition of a Development Stage Entity as defined under Accounting Standards Codification Section 915: Development Stage Entities (“ASC 915”) and presented the additional financial statement disclosures required by a Development Stage Entity under ASC 915, including the presentation of cumulative amounts since inception for the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity and cash flows. During the quarter ended December 31, 2013, the Company generated significant revenue from its planned principal operations by completing its first sale of uranium concentrates.  The Company, therefore, no longer met the definition of a Development Stage Entity. Accordingly, and starting with the filing of its Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, the Company no longer presented the additional financial statement disclosures required by a Development Stage Entity under ASC 915
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The most significant estimates management makes in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements relate to potential impairment in the carrying value of the Company’s long-lived assets, fair value of stock-based compensation, valuation of the in-process inventory and estimation of asset recovery obligations. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash equivalents are investments in guaranteed investment certificates, certificates of deposit and money market accounts which have a term to maturity at the time of purchase of 90 days or less and which are readily convertible into cash.
Restricted cash
Cash which is restricted contractually or which secures various instruments including surety bonds and letters of credit securing reclamation obligations is shown as restricted cash
In-process inventory represents U3O8 that has been extracted from the wellfield and captured in the processing plant and is currently being transformed into a saleable product.  Plant inventory is U3O8 that is contained in yellowcake, which has been dried and packaged in drums, but not yet shipped to the conversion facility.  The amount of U3O8 in the plant inventory is determined by weighing and assaying the amount of U3O8 packaged into drums at the plant. Conversion facility inventory is U3O8 that has been shipped to the conversion facility.  The amount of U3O8 in the conversion facility inventory includes the amount of U3O8 contained in drums shipped to the conversion facility plus or minus any final weighing and assay adjustments per the terms of the uranium supplier’s agreement with the conversion facility. 
The Company’s inventories are measured at the lower of cost or net realizable value and reflect the uranium content (“U3O8”) in various stages of the production and sales process including in-process inventory, plant inventory and conversion facility inventory.   Operating supplies are expensed when purchased.
Mineral properties
Acquisition costs of mineral properties are capitalized. When production is attained, these costs are amortized over the estimated productive life of the property. If properties are abandoned or sold, they are written off. If properties are considered to be impaired in value, the costs of the properties are written down to their estimated fair value at that time.
Exploration, evaluation and development costs
Exploration and evaluation expenses consist of labor, annual exploration lease and maintenance fees and associated costs of the exploration geology department as well as land holding and exploration costs including drilling and analysis on properties which have not reached the permitting or operations stage. Development expense relates to the Company’s Lost Creek and LC East projects, which are more advanced in terms of permitting and development.
Development expenditures for wellfields that are either in production or are being prepared for production, including the cost of wells, pumps, piping, and header houses, are expensed as incurred.
Construction in progress
Construction in progress consists of costs associated with the construction of the Lost Creek facility.  It includes design, engineering, site preparation, plant construction and related asset retirement obligation assets.  Once production commences construction in process is relieved.  Costs associated with the plant construction and related equipment are capitalized and depreciated. 
Capital assets
Property, plant and equipment assets, including machinery, processing equipment, enclosures, vehicles and expenditures that extend the life of such assets, are recorded at cost including acquisition and installation costs. The costs of self-constructed assets include direct construction costs, direct overhead and allocated interest during the construction phase. Depreciation is calculated using a declining balance method for most assets with the exception of the plant enclosure and related equipment.  Depreciation on the plant enclosure and related equipment is calculated on a straight-line basis.  Estimated lives for depreciation purposes range from three years for computer equipment and software to 20 years for the plant enclosure and equipment.
Equity investments
Investments in which the Company has a significant influence are accounted for using the equity method, whereby the Company records its proportionate share of the investee’s income or loss.
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company assesses the possibility of impairment in the net carrying value of its long-lived assets when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the asset or asset group may not be recoverable. When potential impairment is indicated, management calculates the estimated undiscounted future net cash flows relating to the asset or asset group using estimated future prices, recoverable resources, and operating, capital and reclamation costs. When the carrying value of an asset exceeds the related undiscounted cash flows, the asset is written down to its estimated fair value, which is determined using discounted future cash flows or other measures of fair value.
Asset retirement obligations
For mining properties, various federal and state mining laws and regulations require the Company to reclaim the surface areas and restore underground water quality to the pre-existing quality or class of use after the completion of mining. The Company records the fair value of an asset retirement obligation as a liability in the period in which it incurs an obligation associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets that result from the acquisition, construction, development and/or normal use of the assets. Asset retirement obligations consist of estimated final well closures, plant closure and removal and associated ground reclamation costs to be incurred by the Company in the future.  The estimated fair value of the asset retirement obligation is based on the current cost escalated at an inflation rate and discounted at a credit adjusted risk-free rate. This liability is capitalized as part of the cost of the related asset and amortized over its useful life. The liability accretes until the Company settles the obligation.
Revenue recognition
The recognition of revenue from the sale of U3O8 is in accordance with the guidelines outlined in ASC Section 605-10-25, Revenue Recognition. The Company delivers U3O8 to a conversion facility and receives credit for a specified quantity measured in pounds once the product is confirmed to meet the required specifications. When a delivery is approved, the Company notifies the conversion facility with instructions for a title transfer to the customer. Revenue is recognized once a title transfer of the U3O8 is confirmed by the conversion facility.
As discussed below, the Company sold two years of delivery commitments to an independent broker.  The proceeds are recorded as deferred revenue until the broker or purchaser acknowledges the deliveries have been made at which time, the portion of the sale relating to those deliveries is taken into sales revenue.
Stock-based compensation
All stock-based compensation payments made to employees, directors and consultants are accounted for in the consolidated financial statements. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the reward and is recognized over the related service period.  Stock-based compensation cost is charged to construction, exploration and evaluation, development, and general and administrative expense on the same basis as other compensation costs.
Income taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method which requires the recognition of future income tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities.  The Company provides a valuation allowance on future tax assets unless it is more likely than not that such assets will be realized.
Loss per common share
Basic loss per common share is calculated based upon the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  The diluted loss per common share, which is calculated using the treasury stock method, is equal to the basic loss per common share due to the anti-dilutive effect of stock options, restricted share units and share purchase warrants outstanding.
Classification of financial instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, restricted cash, deposits, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, other liabilities and notes payable.  The Company has made the following classifications for these financial instruments:
Cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, restricted cash and deposits are recorded at amortized cost.  Interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate method and is included in income for the period.
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities and notes payable are measured at amortized cost.
Other liabilities are adjusted to the market value at the end of each reporting period.
New accounting pronouncements
The Company continues to monitor new accounting pronouncements and their applicability to the Company’s operations and reporting.  During 2013, there were no new pronouncements which directly affected the Company’s accounting policies or reporting.